Cách viết một kế hoạch marketing tổng thể hoàn chỉnh

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HOW TO WRITE A MARKETING PLAN

A customer focused business ethos is a proven method to increase the chances of a sustainable and profitable future. The marketing planning process is at the heart of any truly marketing orientated company, and ensures the customer is at the centre of all key decisions.

The plan is a detailed written document which can be used to promote a single product, of form the annual business strategy. We have split the marketing plan into three steps, which are easy to follow and equally relevant to both small and large businesses.

Stage 1: Research and planning
Understand your customer and the marketing environment, look for opportunities for growth.

Stage 2: Developing your marketing strategy
Identify objectives and choose the right path to exploit opportunities highlighted in the research stage.

Stage 3: Determining actions and controls
Implement your strategy and track success.

The marketing planning process is summarised in the diagram below
A diagram of the stages reflected in a marketing plan

The marketing plan should provide direction for all relevant members of the organization and should be referred to and updated throughout the year. The main purpose of the marketing plan is to provide a structured approach to help marketing managers consider all the relevant elements of the planning process.

STAGE 1: RESEARCH & PLANNING

This section includes the following:

Statement of your current situation and scope of the plan
Research into potential / current customers
Examining the marketing environment
Identifying opportunities for growth
CURRENT BUSINESS SITUATION

Summarise your current position, possible items include:

Financial results
Sale figures and trends
Market share
Customer satisfaction
Level of repeat business
THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

Examining both the internal and external marketing environments can identify both opportunities and threats to the business and is a core component of the plan. The whole area is usually broken down into the macro, micro and internal environments as summarised in the diagram below.

The marketing environment

THE MACRO-ENVIRONMENT

A commonly used method of quantifying the macro external environment is with aPEST analysis. PEST is an acronym which divides the macro-environment into four areas – Political, Economic, Social, and Technological, examples of which are explained below.

Political environmental factors

Trading agreements
Tax rules
Employment regulation
Environmental legislation
Legal issues
Economic environmental factors

Recession
Interest rates
Exchange rates
Rate of inflation
Population wealth
Growth of the housing market
Social environmental factors

‘Green’ behaviour
Eating habits
Shifts in attitude
Population demographics
Attitudes to career
Technological environmental factors

Emergence of new communications channels
Improved production processes
Advances in computing and the internet
New technologies such as electric vehicles
Automation
Reduced cost of materials
MICRO-ENVIRONMENT

The micro-environment includes factors which are still not directly under the control of the company, but more directly relevant to strategy such as consumer trends, stakeholders, suppliers and competitors. Some example items are listed below.

Summary of your market segment
Market growth, trends and competition
Potential new markets
Direction from shareholders
Supplier costs and service quality
Changes in consumer behaviour
Understanding your customers and market

Ensuring a thorough knowledge of the consumer is vital for successful marketing planning. Use the primary and secondary (first and second hand) market research information at your disposal to describe your customer. As your understanding of the audience improves, you’ll be able to design products which cater for their needs better, and you will be able to communicate with them more directly. If you have a broad customer base, you might need to split your customers into groups (segmentation). Some examples are shown below.

Typical customer demographics
Customer profile
Market size
Market geography
Article on segmentation, targeting & positioning
Understanding your competitors

Who are your competitors?
What are they likely to be doing?
Strengths
Weaknesses
Reputation and brand equity
How are they using the marketing mix?
Infrastructure and supply chain
Product strategy
Competitor analysis

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

The internal marketing environment includes factors that the business can directly influence. This can include:

The organisational structure
The strengths and weaknesses of a department
Financial stability and resources
Staff morale
Spare production capacity
Client base
Pricing structure
Selling channels
Staff skills
IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

Once you have completed the internal and external environmental audit, you can summarise your findings using a SWOT analysis which can be used to make key decisions.

SWOT ANALYSIS

A ‘SWOT analysis’ is a useful way of summarizing the results of the environmental audit and presenting the current status of a business. SWOT simply stands for the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats which have emerged from examining the macro, micro and internal marketing environments.

Marketing environment
For example, here is a SWOT analysis for a fictional electric car manufacturer

Strengths

Our electric motors are cheap to produce and maintenance free
Charge time is class leading
Production capacity can be increased
R&D department is class leading
Weaknesses

Batteries are heavy, slow to charge and provide limited mileage
Dealer network is small
Customer trust in the segment is low
Market is highly competitive
Opportunities

Government grants are available
Road tax breaks for electric cars
Market is growing rapidly
Battery technology is evolving
Threats

Tesla has secured a large government grant
The big players are investing heavily
Hybrid and diesel technology is evolving fast
STAGE 2: MARKETING STRATEGY

This section includes the following elements:

Development of a mission statement
Statement of objectives
Strategy and tactics to accomplish the objectives
MISSION STATEMENT

Your mission statement is a formal commitment and focus for the business. It should explain to customers concisely what the nature of your business is and where you are going, and also provide a motivational tool for employees. It should be aspirational, something to strive for, yet obtainable and relevant. Once this has been defined it should form the focus for your business strategy.

VISION STATEMENT

A vision statement is a more long term, ideal-world statement which outlines where you would like to take the business in the long run.

OBJECTIVES

Combined with the mission statement, your objectives should be the key statements that drive your business. The most successful goals follow the SMARTacronym. Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound.

What do you want to achieve by the end of this year?
Where do you want to be in one, five, ten years?
Objectives must be quantitative in order to measure success accurately. For example, ‘sell 600 units in the next year’ or ‘increase customer retention by 20%’.

SELECTING A SUITABLE STRATEGY

DEVELOPING A STRATEGY FOR GROWTH – THE ANSOFF MATRIX

Most businesses need to grow, and the Ansoff Matrix (below) is a method of determining the best course of action if growth is your priority.

The Ansoff matrix

Market penetration

Increasing market share in a current market with a current product.

Example tactics:

Aggressive pricing policy (see ‘cost leadership’ in Porter’s model)
Re-branding
Increasing marketing spend
Porter’s model
Market development

Taking existing products into new markets

Example tactics:

Finding a new use for an existing product
Expanding the distribution network
Strategic partnerships in international markets
Product development

Developing a new product for a market that you have already entered

Example tactics:

Creating a range of similar products, for example, shaving foam if you are already manufacturing razors
Diversification

Developing a new product for a completely new market

Example tactics:

Market research
Product research and development
DEVELOPING A PRICING STRATEGY

Once you have determined the product and market you want to be in, the next problem will be setting a price. Porter’s model discusses three strategies for competitive advantage based on price.

Three generic strategies for competitive advantage – Porter’s model

Cost leadership: A good quality product at a lower price than the competitors
Differential strategy: A product or service which is perceived as unique within a particular market
Focus strategy: Delivering focused attention to a particular segment to deliver service which competitors cannot compete

Nguồn:  https://www.brandsvietnam.com/congdong/topic/568-Cach-viet-mot-ke-hoach-marketing-tong-the-hoan-chinh

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